A root mite is a small creature that can cause irreparable harm to plants. It prefers to feed on plants of the bulbous family, but other representatives of the flora should be wary of it. A root such as an onion is the best treat for them. These pests live in the ground, so they are not easy to detect. While in the soil, they gradually damage the bulb or roots of another species. The plant begins to die slowly.
Root mites outwardly look like small spiders, which have three pairs of legs, thin antennae and a body of a barely noticeable light shade. The appearance of a tick in a pot with a houseplant is a common problem. There are three main reasons why such an unexpected guest appears.
1. This pest prefers to settle in warm and constantly moist soil. If the soil moisture is exceeded, and the temperature in the soil reaches twenty degrees, then for the tick it is just a heavenly place to live. It is in such conditions that they most often appear.
2. The second common reason for the appearance of ticks is the presence of a sick indoor plant in the room. Experienced growers know that such flowers need to be isolated from healthy ones. They need urgent treatment, as they can easily transmit their problem to other indoor plants. Usually they are transferred to another room during the treatment. If healthy and diseased indoor plants were close to each other, then root mites will soon settle in all flower pots.
3. But the easiest way to get a root mite is to buy it together with an indoor flower in a store. After all, this parasite cannot be seen on the surface, since it is located directly on the roots of the plant. And when buying, it is impossible to inspect the condition of the root system of the flower. Unfortunately, this is the most common reason.
If one of the indoor plants is sick (for example, leaves wither or dry, growth slows down), then you need to check it for the presence of a root mite. To do this, the plant is carefully removed from the flower pot together with the soil and the root system is carefully examined. If it is a bulbous plant, then lightly press on the bulb. When a tick is in the middle of the bulb, when you press on it, the fruits of its labor (something resembling dust) will sprinkle from the inside. Upon closer examination, in the root system, you can see not only the ticks themselves, but also many larvae and laid eggs.
The bulbs of the future plants must be stored in the correct conditions prior to planting. Choose a storage room that is cool but dry. During planting, you need to carefully inspect each bulb again and get rid of spoiled and damaged materials.
If already mature indoor plants are sick, you can try to save them with the help of special treatment and antimicrobial drugs. To do this, you need to remove the plant from the pot, shake off the soil from the roots, and then rinse the root system or bulbs well. After that, the plant must be placed in a container with a special solution of chemical or biological origin. Flower pots must be washed and boiled for fifteen minutes, and then also kept for some time in a solution that destroys harmful insects.
For prophylaxis in the fight against ticks, heed the advice:
Do not create favorable conditions for pests and nothing will threaten your flower garden.
There are many problems with growing peppers, if they are grown for the first time or rarely. Peppers are relatives of tomatoes, but they are more whimsical in care. They need more heat and light, they cannot stand temperature extremes, dampness and dryness, and suffer greatly from root damage. In addition to care errors, there are also diseases and pests that move to seedlings from poor-quality soil.
If the plant begins to lose weight and stretch, the foliage turns pale and reduces the number of lobules on the young, then most likely the reason is insufficient lighting. It is necessary to reconsider the conditions of detention and put the flowerpot closer to the sun, and if this is not possible, it is worthwhile to artificially highlight the tree. You need to purchase a special lamp for plants that emits a spectrum as close as possible to the sun. Ordinary household lamps will not give an effect - they will not work.
Zamioculcas, in general, and so does not differ in rapid growth, and if it slows down even more, look for the reason in the lack of space for roots - it may be necessary to transplant the plant into a larger flowerpot. Another reason for this behavior is the lack of micronutrients. Try complex formulas containing potassium, magnesium and nitrogen. The tree reacts especially sharply to a lack of nitrogen.
This is the "record holder" among the entire list of harmful organisms. If the field is overpopulated with it, then there is no chance of harvesting at least some kind of crop from it.
The favorite habitat of this pest is clay and heavy soils, which must be taken into account even at the planning stage of sowing garlic.
A nematoda is a microscopic white worm up to 1.5 mm long. Adults, as well as their offspring, feed exclusively on the juice of garlic stalks.
As a result of their vital activity, the plants noticeably slow down their growth, turn yellow, die off, the false stem ("arrow") thickens, and the roots dry out.
After the plant has died, the nematodes with their entire composition migrate to the next, constantly multiplying and again laying eggs in the stalks of garlic. Nematodes hibernate in the ground and in crop residues.
Methods for dealing with stem nematode
It is necessary to completely abandon sowing garlic in an infected field for at least 4 years. During this period, you can try to get rid of the nematode by sowing lupine or clover, perennial grasses or corn.
Along with this, special chemicals and non-matacid mixtures can be used. They are sprayed with the help of special equipment or by the forces of workers.
This pest spoils garlic that has been harvested and stored. But the root mite can live and multiply in the field during the period of plant growth, if its individuals were introduced into the soil during planting.
For normal life, the tick needs constant heat and moisture. If the air temperature in the storage reaches 28 ° C, and the humidity approaches 60%, then the female tick begins to lay eggs.
One head of garlic can contain almost 500 eggs, the full development cycle of which will take only a month.
Usually, the mite enters the head of the garlic through the bottom.
This pest can be recognized by a white, oval and vitreous body, equipped with four pairs of red-brown legs.
The root mite leaves behind only a husk filled with dust from garlic. This pest spreads by planting the remains of infected planting material, using containers or equipment from under it.
Root mite control measures
This pest causes the greatest damage during rainy periods. An adult resembles an ordinary fly with a smaller body. Its larvae are white, headless and legless, the eggs are whitish and oblong, and the pupae are reddish brown.
The main harm is caused by the larvae, which eat away the pulp of garlic teeth, and after three weeks of life they go into the ground for pupation.
For the entire harvest period, the fly is capable of giving several generations. Control measures include preventing contaminated material from entering the fields, observing the rules of crop rotation and using insecticides.
This small insect, the length of which does not even reach 1 mm, has an elongated brownish or yellowish body. It hibernates, usually in the upper layers of the soil or in the remains of garlic bulbs.
As a result of its vital activity, the leaves of the host plant become covered with silvery spots, which merge, forcing all the greens to turn yellow and dry out.
This leads to the cessation of the growth of the garlic head. Control measures consist in the correct conduct of agricultural policy, the purchase of high-quality material for sowing and fumigation of the seed with sulfur dioxide. Warming the seeds to 42-43 ° C for a couple of days can also help.
This disease is caused by a parasitic fungus. It can be noticed by the appearance of rusty-red spots on the leaves of the plant. In the absence of any measures, the leaves dry out ahead of time, thereby preventing the bulb from developing.
On large areas, irrigation with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid helps to fight this disease, to which it is necessary to add a paste for better adhesion, or etching the sets with a formalin solution. Do not forget about the existence of special drugs.
It manifests itself in the form of yellowish spots on the leaves, which subsequently acquire a dark olive moldy hue. Mold usually occurs when the weather is warm and rainy over a long period of time.
The disease, as a rule, affects weak and underdeveloped plants, inhibiting and inhibiting their growth. Usually the use of chemicals does not work. The fight against mold consists in cultivation, periodic loosening of the soil and top dressing.
The disease manifests itself as brown streaks that appear on the garlic leaves. During its development, it completely blackens the plant, leaving a pink bloom on its false stem.
Usually, the process of infection begins precisely from the bottom of the head of garlic. This leads to the ingress of fungal spores into the root system, after which it also becomes pinkish and dies off.
The infection enters the plant through contaminated soil or poor-quality planting material. Warm and humid weather favors the special distribution of Fusarium. It is possible to eradicate the disease by applying the following measures:
The causative agent of the disease is a virus. Dwarfism is easily recognized by the depressed crop, its yellow, folded or corrugated leaves.
The virus is transmitted either by aphids or mechanically. It can be eliminated only by buying healthy material for subsequent sowing, isolating seeds from other crops and getting rid of already infected fruits or plants.
This disease is the result of the vital activity of the bacteria Erwinia carotovor. During storage of the crop, deep stripes or sores become noticeable on the heads of garlic, which go from top to bottom.
The very flesh of the cloves becomes pearlescent yellow, which does not prevent them from germinating and growing into a normal and full-fledged plant. Bacteriosis is usually the result of too early harvest, incomplete drying and storage in a wet state.
Signs of this disease:
The pathogen remains to live in crop residues. The peak of infection of young crops falls on wet and warm weather. The use of agrotechnical techniques, spraying with drugs and the fight against existing diseases is recommended.
The disease, which manifests itself in the form of white rot on the bottom of the head of garlic, can appear both during its growth in the fields and during storage.
Young plants, in the presence of white rot, begin to turn yellow quickly, and their foliage dies off. Seedlings are sure to die.
Another telltale sign of white rot is a fluffy, whitish coating covering the head of the garlic. This is usually only noticed when it is time for harvesting in the fields.
It is noteworthy that rot spores can be stored in the soil for a whole decade, which complicates the fight against the disease. Farmers are advised to alternate sowing of different crops on the contaminated field, destroy the affected crop, and try to keep the moisture content of the soil within the permissible limits.
The main guarantee of the health of the future harvest will be quite justified costs for the purchase of high-quality seedlings or planting material.
A virus of this kind can equally harm both adult plants and planting material. If the mosaic was found on the seed, then only half of the estimated harvest should be expected. Plants take a long time to develop, resulting in small heads of garlic that have a very short shelf life. First danger signs:
Mosaic virus is transmitted by nematodes, aphids and garlic mites. He is unable to survive in soil or seeds, preferring to "dwell" in bulbs. In the fight against the disease, you can resort to the following measures:
This is not a complete list of potential threats to garlic. Having studied the proposed control options, one can understand that the main measure to prevent the loss of the crop is the correct selection of a plot of land for growing this crop and compliance with the elementary rules of crop rotation.
One of these rules recommends not planting garlic in the same place every year, but alternating it with other crops. But if there is a goal or means to deal only with this crop, then it is necessary to understand all the nuances of its cultivation, to maintain order in the fields used, all stages of preparation for storing the crop and create the necessary conditions.
Perhaps it is then that there will be a chance to avoid buying expensive drugs, which, moreover, will significantly reduce the quality of the product.
The amount of fertilizer on the shelf is dazzling. You can ask the manager for advice, but it is better to understand their varieties yourself. For feeding onions, mineral, complex, organic, bacterial preparations and growth stimulants are used.
With the help of mineral fertilizers, no more than 3 dressings are carried out per season. Urea, superphosphate, potassium chloride are used.With the beginning of the formation of heads, the need for nitrogen decreases, so it is not used in summer.
Organic matter (mullein, chicken droppings, grass) in the form of a liquid solution is applied no more than 2 times per season. Mullein (0.5 kg) is poured with water (6 liters), insisted and added when watering, 1 liter per bucket. A solution of chicken manure is prepared in the following ratios:
Fertilizer is prepared for 2 days, before use it is diluted in half. The herb infusion is easy to prepare. For 9 parts of water, take 1 part of chopped weeds, insist for a week. Add 1 liter of fermented herbs to a 10 liter watering can.
Complex fertilizers for bulbous crops are very easy to use and effective:
Instructions for use and balanced composition (N, P, K) will not allow you to make a mistake.
Garlic leaves are covered with orange raised spots this year. I have never encountered such a disease.
What is this attack and how to deal with it?
Veniamin A. SIDELNIKOV, Leningrad Region, Lodeinoe Pole
This is garlic rust, a disease in which orange-yellow, skin-covered bumps appear on the surface of the leaves, which then burst and orange spores pour out of them. With a strong defeat, the leaves dry up early, the yield drops sharply.
Most often, this ailment appears as a reaction to the negligence of gardeners who do not adhere to the laws of agricultural technology. So, non-observance of crop rotation, when garlic and onions are grown in the same place from year to year, almost always, due to the accumulation of pathogenic fungi in the soil, leads to a rust outbreak. If you do not remove the plant residues on which the spores settle for the winter, the disease will inevitably come next season.
Etching the cloves before planting in the ground with a formalin solution (1 part of a 40% preparation per 250 parts of water) is effective against rust. Chives are poured into a canvas bag, which is immersed in the solution for 10 minutes. Then it is taken out, given time for the liquid to drain and tightly wrapped in a polymer film for 2 hours. After that, the teeth are scattered and dried.
At the first signs of the disease, the leaves of plants and the ground around them can be sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or the fungicide "HOM". But you can do this no later than 3 weeks before harvesting the garlic.
For many years of gardening, I have never been able to grow large and beautiful spring garlic. Although winter crops have always grown well, despite the fact that I did not spoil him with anything. Yes, I don’t change the planting site, I don’t water it in the summer, I don’t fertilize it with anything, except that in the fall I bring chicken droppings mixed with earth to the garden bed. And the winter garlic grows beautifully, but the spring garlic, no matter how hard I tried, grew out of figs. Until one day in the market I met a woman who was selling large garlic.
Valentina said that her garlic loves lush beds, planting very early, good care, loosening and watering. I bought several landing heads from her and followed all her advice. On fire to grow tangerine-sized garlic. And this is what happened (see photo).
In February, I put garlic on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. I dug a small bed (about 1.2 × 2.2 m) and sowed oats. In the early spring, she loosened it with a flat cutter, sprinkled it with ashes. I didn’t water it: the ground was wet anyway. A week before planting, I took out the cloves and put them in a container filled with sawdust. Sawdust spilled with hot water with potassium permanganate (raspberry-colored solution). Very quickly, the cloves sprouted, and green sprouts appeared.
And on April 7, I planted the garlic. When the plants reached a height of 10-12 cm, I carried out loosening. Valentina said that she feeds her garlic twice with fertilizer for onions and garlic. I did not use fertilizers, considering that there would be enough ash: it contains a lot of microelements. Of course, it's a good advice to add peat and a little sand to the soil, but I didn't have this stuff either, so I decided to do it.
The whole summer I watched my little bed: weeded, watered, loosened the aisles with a flat cutter. The garlic grew beautiful, pleasing to the eye. In early August, I dug up the heads a little, but did not barely bare them, they were still not very large. This means that they should still be pouring. And only in September, when the leaves fell and began to turn yellow, I dug up the garlic.
The harvest pleased me, the garlic was a success! I left the largest heads for planting next year, the rest were used for food. The conclusion is this: you always need to believe in yourself, in your strengths and not shy away from other people's good advice. As they say, you just want to - and everything will work out.
White flower, muscari and blueberry are the main stars of my spring beds. To ensure a luxurious flowering, I dig up the bulbs of these plants every 4 years and send them for storage until the autumn planting. I define the ideal time for digging as follows: as soon as after flowering a pair of upper leaves turns yellow, you can start. If you wait for all the leaves to wither, then there is a high probability that you will not find the location of the bulbs and damage them with a shovel.
I work in a flower garden only in dry, sunny weather. I use a flat-edged bayonet shovel.
I immediately lay out the bulbs by varieties, rejecting sick, rotten and damaged bulbs.
I clean them from the ground only after drying. You cannot "tap" onions!
I wash the sorted peeled bulbs under running water and hold them for half an hour in a solution of potassium permanganate (5 g / 1 l of water) for disinfection. After a couple of days I dry it in a shaded and well-ventilated place.
I also process the wooden boxes in which the planting material will be stored with a solution of potassium permanganate, but I dry them in direct sunlight.
On the bottom of the boxes, pour a thin layer of wet clean sand (you can also use peat or sawdust), lay out the bulbs and cover them with sand on top.
I store the containers in a room with good ventilation at + 12-15 degrees, and once a week I check the safety of the bulbs.
In September, I plant them in open ground in a new place.
I noticed that the aroma of muscari scares off flies and mosquitoes, so I try to place them closer to the veranda and gazebo.
© Author: Olga KAPYLOVA, Dubrovno, Vitebsk region.